1、 promoting endothelial cell proliferation VEGF is a specific mitogen of vascular endothelial cells, which can promote the growth of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and induce vascular proliferation in vivo. Especially in hypoxic environment, VEGF binds to VEGF receptor on endothelial cell membrane, causing autophosphorylation of the receptor, thereby activating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), realizing the mitogen properties of VEGF and inducing endothelial cell proliferation.
2、 promote vascular proliferation under hypoxic environment, VEGF increases the activity of plasma zymogen activating factor (PA) and plasma zymogen activating factor inhibitor-l (PAI-1) by increasing the mRNA expression, promotes extracellular proteolysis, and then promotes the formation of new capillary. 3.、increase vascular permeability VEGF is one of the strongest substances that can increase vascular permeability, which is achieved through small vesicular organelles. It is characterized by rapid action and short duration.
4、change the extracellular matrix under hypoxic environment, VEGF can induce the expression of plasma plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, as well as matrix collagenase and tissue factor in endothelial cells, and stimulate the release of V3 factor from endothelial cells, thereby changing the extracellular matrix, making it easier for vascular growth.VEGF is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of many angiogenesis dependent diseases, including cancer, some inflammatory diseases and diabetic retinopathy.